CHƯƠNG V: CÂU TRỰC TIẾP - GIÁN TIẾP
A. Lý thuyết.
Lời nói gián tiếp là tường thuật lại ý của người nói
• Cách đổi câu trực tiếp sang gián tiếp
1. Thay đổi thì của động từ.
Trực tiếp Gián tiếp
HTT ( is/are/ am) QKT (was/were)
HTTD ( is/are/am + V- ing) QKTD(was/were + V- ing)
TLT ( Will ) TL trong QK ( Would )
Can Could / be able to
Must Had to / would have to
Have to Had to
2. Thay đổi chủ ngữ, tân ngữ, đại từ sở hữu.
- ngôi thứ nhất: (I, we, me, mine, us, our) được đổi sang ngôi thứ ba ( He, She, It, They, him/ her, his/ hers, its, their, them).
*eg: Jane said,” I live in the suburbs”
-> Jane said that she lived in the suburbs.
- ngôi thứ hai ( You, your, yours ) được đổi theo ngôi của tân ngữ trong mệnh đề tường thuật.
*eg: He said to me,” You can take my book”
-> He said me that I could take his book.
- ngôi thứ ba ( He, She, It, They, him, his, her ,them ,their) giữ nguyên( không đổi).
*eg: Mary says,” They come to help the pupils.”
-> Mary said that they came to help the pupils.
3.Trạng từ chỉ thời gian .
Trực tiếp Gián tiếp
today that day
tonight that day
tomorrow the next day/ following day
yesterday the day before
last week/month/year the previous week/month/year
next week/month/year the following week/month/year
*eg: - “I’m going now”. He said
-> He said he was going then.
- She said “ I was at Hue yesterday”.
-> She said that she had been at Hue the day before.
4. Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn.
Trực tiếp Gián tiếp
*eg:- He said, ”Put the books here”
-> He told me to put the books there.
- Tom said to me,” I’ll meet you this Friday”
-> He told me that he would meet me that Friday.
III. Câu mệnh lệnh gián tiếp
Trong lời nói gián tiếp, loại câu này được bắt đầu bằng các động từ: asked, told, ordered…
Eg: -“ Hurry up, Lan”
-> He told Lan to hurry up.
- “ Shut the door”
-> He ordered them to shut the door.
- “ Don’t leave the room”.
-> He told them not to leave the room.
* C«ng thøc:,
TT:“V + O” => GT: S + told/ordered/asked + to-inf + O
TT“Don’t/ doesn’t + V + O” => GT:S + asked/told + not + to-inf + O
IV. Câu nghi vấn
1. Yes/ No – questions
Trong lời nói gián tiếp loại câu hỏi này được mở đầu bằng các động từ “ ask, wonder …” và theo sau có “if/ whether”.
*eg: - “ Have you seen that film?” he told her
-> He asked if she had seen that film.
- “ Will Tom be here tomorrow?.” She told
-> She wonder whether Tom would be there the day after.
* Công thức:
TT: S + tell / told + “ Do/does/was/will/are/is.. + S + V + O ?”
GT => S + asked/wondered + (O) + If/ whether + S + V(lùi thì) + O.
2. Wh – questions ( who,what, where, why, when,how much/ many/ long” trong câu gián tiếp loại câu này được mở đầu bằng các động từ “ ask, require, wonder,..”
* eg: - “ What time does the film begin?.”
-> He asked what time the film begun.
- “ What will you do tomorrow?
-> She wondered what I would do the next day.
* Công thức:
TT: S + tell/ told + “ wh- qs + ( do/was/will).. . + S + V + O ?”
GT :S + asked/wondered + (O) + wh – qs + S + V(lùi thì) + O.
B. Bài tập.
Chuyển những câu sau sang câu gián tiếp.
1. He said to her, “You are my friend.”
2. Johnny said to his mother, “I don’t know how to do this exercise.”
3. “ Don’t come back before one o’clock”, advised my brother.
4. “Cook it in butter”, Mrs Brown said to her daughter.
5. The pupils said “ Teacher, give us better marks, please.”
6. My friend said, “ Are you going to leave tomorrow?”
7. “ Have you done your homework?”, said my mother.
8. I asked Bill,” What time did you go to bed last night?”
9. Paul said, “ I must go home now.”
10. “ There is an accident .”, said the policeman.
11. “ We are waiting for the school bus”, said the children.
12. “ Must you go now?”, said Mr Brown.
13. “ Are you going to visit your aunt tomorrow?” asked Tom.
14. “ Listen to me and don’t make a noise, ”said the teacher to his students.
15. “ I’m tired of eating fish”, said Mary to Helen.
16. “ The sun always rises in the east,” said Peter.
17. “ I didn’t steal your fur coat yesterday,” said Sammy to Jean.
18. “ You must do your homework everyday”, said Miss Lan to us.
19. “ Will we read the story?”, Bill asked his teacher.
20. “ I don’t know where Alice is,” said Vicky.
21. “ There isn’t much rain in the south of the country,” said Harry.
22. “ Would you mind turning the music down?" Andrew said to Anne.
23. “ How much do you think it will cost?” He asked.
24. “ Can you speak more slowly? I can’t understand,” He said to me.
25. “ Have you already reviewed all your lessons?” she said to me.
26. “ Come in and look around. There’s no obligation to buy,” said the shopkeeper.
27. “ I’m sorry I’m late,” she said.” The bus broken down”
28. Mary asked me “ Can you tell me why you are so sad?”
29. “ Will you please find out when he last wrote to me?” Jane said to her friend.
30. “ You must decide what you want to do”, she said to her daughter.
1. He said to her she was his friend.
2. Johnny said to his mother he didn’t know how to do that exercise.
4. My brother advised me not to come back before one o’clock.
5. Mrs Brown told her daughter to cook it in butter.
6. The pupils asked their teacher to give them better marks.
7. My friend asked me if I was going to leave the day after.
8. My mother asked me if I had done my homework.
9. I asked Bill what time he had gone to bed the night before.
10. Paul said that he had to go home then
10.The policeman said that there was an accident.
11.The children said that they were waiting for the school bus.
12. Mr Brown asked me if I had to go then.
13. Tom asked if I was going to visit my aunt the next day.
14. The teacher asked his students to listen to him and not to make any noise.
15.Mary said Helen she was tired of eating fish.
16.Peter said the sun always rises/rose in the east.
17.Sammy told Jean that he didn’t steal/hadn’t stolen her coat the day before.
18. Miss Lan told us that we must/ had to do our homework every day./ Miss Lan asked us to do our homework every day.
19. Billy asked his teacher if they would read the story.
20. Vicky said she didn’t know where Alice was.
21. Andrew asked Anne to turn the music down.
22. He asked how much I thought it would cost.
23. He asked me to speak more slowly because he couldn’t understand.
24.She asked me if I had already reviewed all my lessons.
25. The shopkeeper invited us to come in and look round and told us that there was no obligation to buy.
26.She apologized for being late and explained that the bus had broken down.
27. Jane advised me to take the course.
28.Mary asked me if I could tell her why I was so sad.
29.Jane asked me to find out when he last wrote to her.
30.She urged her daughter to decide what she wanted to do.